Salam Filateli,

Jika anda orang Indonesia dan menyukai filateli, mencari informasi mengenai filateli, mengetahui sejarah pos, mengkoleksi prangko, ingin menjual atau membeli prangko, tukar menukar surat/ kartupos, mendapatkan katalog prangko...mari bergabung dengan komunitas ini di facebook...KOMUNITAS FILATELIS FBOOKERS INDONESIA...<---klik aja...

(memasyarakatkan filateli dan memfilatelikan masyarakat)

Saturday, November 13, 2010

Burundi - Traditional Dances (New York Expo) 1964


Music and musical instruments of Burundi
General description:
Burundi - one of the ancient kingdoms of Central Africa, to the east of Lake Tanganyika - is now a republic of 6,373,002 inhabitants (according to a 2002 estimate) with an approximate surface area of 27,834 km2 and a population density of 228.96 per km2. Its language, Kirundi, is part of the Bantu family of languages and is very similar to Kinyarwanda and Giha, the languages spoken in the ancient neighbouring kingdoms of Rwanda and Buha respectively. Buha is now part of the Republic of Tanzania and Rwanda has become an independent republic.

Apart from Rwanda and Tanzania, Burundi is bordered by the Democratic Republic of Congo. Its orographic relief is dominated by Mount Heha, with an elevation of 2,760 metres. The country's main conurbations are Gitega, Bururi, Rumonge and Ngozi.

Burundi is inhabited by three population groups: the Tutsi, the Hutu and the Twa. The main activities in which these three groups have traditionally been engaged have always been agriculture (millet, sorghum, maize, sweet potatoes, beans, bananas, …) and stock rearing (cattle: the ankole breed of cow; small livestock: goats, sheep, chickens and, more recently, pigs). However, a certain number of trades and secondary production activities are also practised, such as beekeeping, pottery, woodworking, metalworking, basketry and weaving, hunting, jewel-making, etc. Most of these professions are liable to be lost following the introduction of western-made products which are often more practical and effective.

Music and musical instruments of Burundi
General description:
Burundi - one of the ancient kingdoms of Central Africa, to the east of Lake Tanganyika - is now a republic of 6,373,002 inhabitants (according to a 2002 estimate) with an approximate surface area of 27,834 km2 and a population density of 228.96 per km2. Its language, Kirundi, is part of the Bantu family of languages and is very similar to Kinyarwanda and Giha, the languages spoken in the ancient neighbouring kingdoms of Rwanda and Buha respectively. Buha is now part of the Republic of Tanzania and Rwanda has become an independent republic.

Apart from Rwanda and Tanzania, Burundi is bordered by the Democratic Republic of Congo. Its orographic relief is dominated by Mount Heha, with an elevation of 2,760 metres. The country's main conurbations are Gitega, Bururi, Rumonge and Ngozi.

Burundi is inhabited by three population groups: the Tutsi, the Hutu and the Twa. The main activities in which these three groups have traditionally been engaged have always been agriculture (millet, sorghum, maize, sweet potatoes, beans, bananas, …) and stock rearing (cattle: the ankole breed of cow; small livestock: goats, sheep, chickens and, more recently, pigs). However, a certain number of trades and secondary production activities are also practised, such as beekeeping, pottery, woodworking, metalworking, basketry and weaving, hunting, jewel-making, etc. Most of these professions are liable to be lost following the introduction of western-made products which are often more practical and effective.

Cultural field
a) Cultural variation
It is generally admitted that the culture of central Burundi (Muramvya, Ngozi and Gitega territories) is representative of the culture of the whole country but major variations are seen in the peripheral territories: the Rusizi plain and the Imbo region in the west, bordering the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC); Buragane and the Moso in the south and south-west respectively, bordering Tanzania. These variations exist in other regions, but are less pronounced than in the four areas mentioned, and are due to the proportions of a particular population group over another and to each group's way of life (agriculture, livestock, pottery or other trade, …).

b) The arts
The cultural aspects associated with the arts in Burundi are numerous, rich and varied. Here, we discuss the artistic field of music and dance.

Music
Every Murundi is a musician at heart, according to Ntahokaja in his article entitled La musique des Barundi (The music of the Barundi), (in: Grands Lacs, 1948-1949, 4-5-6: 45-49). His soul is a taut string which vibrates at the slightest breeze. He sings for all events of life, joyful or sad. The Barundi possess a broad repertoire of songs adapted to all states of mind and all circumstances of life. Joyful songs and sad songs - the latter fewer in number - enhance family and official gatherings, accompany certain rituals and ceremonies and are associated with certain trades.

These include the following:
1) uruvyino singing (imvyino in the plural)
Ntahokaja speaks of uruvyino singing as "mass singing", practised among most of the population. At family celebrations, for example, the singing rises spontaneously from among those present. As the beer glasses are emptied and hearts open, the people are seized by a rousing, lively and cheerful melody. The imvyino style is that of verse and refrain. A (male or female) soloist sings the verses, which are improvisational and have colourful, charming words. The audience, singing in chorus, takes up the refrain - a short, highly rhythmic phrase which is always the same within one song. This song is often accompanied by hand-clapping and possibly also dancing.

The imvyino dance songs may also be categorized depending on the circumstances of their performance.
Dance songs at meetings of young girls .
Private meetings of young girls from the same group of friends, taking the opportunity to exchange their views on life, their respective family situations and for advice given by older to younger girls. The songs sung on this occasion are full of advice and elements critical of society.

Dance songs accompanying a wedding celebration : Songs to prepare the future bride, giving advice on the way she has to behave with her in-laws; songs during the bridal procession, songs when the procession leaves at the end of the ceremony. This category of songs also includes those sung to mark the various traditional and compulsory visits to the families of the two newly-weds after the wedding.

Dance songs at the birth of a child. These songs are performed by family, friends and neighbours to salute a mother who has passed the test of bringing a baby into the world, and to greet the baby as he enters society. These dances acquire special, ritual solemnity when they celebrate the birth of twins; this is an event almost within the realm of evil. The dances performed then become part of a rite to correct this abnormality and to protect the family.

Dance songs of the Kiranga , or Kubandwa cult. On the whole, while the content of the songs and the form of the words fall within the ritual and reserved domain, the method of dancing follows that of profane dance singing.

Dance songs of the umuganuro. The celebrations of the First Fruits and of sowing the sorghum have been associated with a certain number of rituals involving the beating of drums, accompanied by dancing. The drummers are known as the Abakokezi (keeping the basic rhythm of the drums) and the Abavuzamurishyo (following the movement of the dancer).

Dance songs for entertainment during shared, family occasions, at the end of ploughing or other joint activities where the warmth of the occasion - especially when drinking is involved - leads to spontaneous dancing.

Trade songs giving rise to dancing: hunting, beekeeping, cattle rearing, fishing, metalworking, etc., generally have rhythmic songs to accompany the work. For example, hunters have many songs in which they praise their hunting dogs. The following are some examples: the chant of the churn, the song of the mortar, the song of the beekeeper, the song of the beaters (hunting), the song of the gleaners, the song of the sower, the weeding song, etc.

The war dances of the intore:
rhythmic dance in strict lines, with weapons: spears and shields, leopard skins, headdresses, pearl costumes and bells on the feet:
* Presence of a leader to encourage the dancers with lyrical odes, war-like panegyrics: (amazina y'ubuhizi ) and (amazina y'intore).
* Parade dance (kwiyereka) in a winding line reminiscent of the Indian line during which the warrior-dancers display their weapons.

No comments: